Features care of young vineyards
Seedling grapes, he may be put in any time of the year, needs proper care, which includes chiselling, irrigation, loosening the soil, cleaning weeds, garter to the support, forming shop bush. On how well respected the set of procedures depends on fruiting and crop quality.
When transplanting seedlings should take into account several factors: the nature of the soil (sand or soil), grape (or rootstock grafting, one or two years), type of seedlings (grafted and non-grafted). On a good, moderately moist soil usually planted annuals grade, a poor stony – the biennial. After planting, make chiselling or loosening the soil to a depth of 10-12 cm, and harrowing. During the summer the soil is cultivated around 4-6 times.
Particular attention is paid to watering plants. After 7-10 days after planting in irrigated areas produce a furrow irrigation (400-600 m3 of water per 1 ha), cut 50 cm from the bushes. After that furrows are buried near the seedlings and corrected mounds. Autumn spend moisture-charging watering (600-1000 m3 / ha). During the growing season the plants are irrigated about 2-3 times. The roots of grapes are in most cases, at a depth of 35-40 cm, so when watering try to wet the soil to the depth of the roots. The ground under a bush should be moderately moist. Due to excessive moisture grape roots begin to decay as the water displaces the air, without which they can not develop. Dry soil also adversely affects the growth of roots, the plant results in starvation because the nutrients in the soil does not dissolve. In the late spring – early summer planting of the 2nd and 3rd years of the growing season are fed with chemical fertilizers, a mixture of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, 20-40 kg / ha. They are added to the soil during irrigation in dry or liquid form at a distance of 50-70 cm from the bushes furrow to a depth of 30-35 cm.
There is a separate facility for the care of the young seedlings on the fight against pests and diseases. Seedlings planted without covers, for the first three years of life just remove the surface roots of a year. For the first year of life plants katarovku carried out in late June, the 2nd and 3rd years – only in the spring. For this purpose, each bush open to a depth of 20 cm and the roots were removed, formed on the upper trunk nodes.
Aisle autumn grape plowed or spend chiselling, loosening the soil to a depth of 20-25 cm. In the winter the young bushes spud the ground. If the bushes are damaged by severe frosts, they are covered with a layer of soil in height of 25-30 cm.
Young vines planted on sandy and rapidly-podzelistyh soils, it is advisable to apply one of the systems of content between rows: steam or steam-sided. The latter consists in the fact that in the first half of the plant contain the soil under fallow and early autumn are planting annual crops for green manure.
For weed control in vineyards located in the area on uncovered area hillsides and skeletal soil, the plants are covered with black plastic sheeting, to 1 mm and a width of 8 cm. In the film make the cut, and immediately after planting is carried out through the hole waxing seedlings . The edges of the film hidden in the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm. This can serve as a shelter for 4-5 years.
In the second year of life, plants begin to form bushes, installing special trellises for grapes. The most common method is a multi-arm Forming. It allows you to securely cover the plant in winter and regularly replace the hoses with no impact on productivity. The optimal number of arms on one bush single plane vine trellis – two – four, on two planes – four – eight. Formation of more hoses possible if the bushes are formed in the form of Don bowls or Moldovan.
Read more about the trellis in the “Grape bollards and support.”